A comprehensive listing of terms used in the sheep industry has been compiled as a reference tool for producers, consumers and media. This glossary has been extracted from the ASI Publication The Sheep Industry Handbook.
1080 livestock protection collar - Tool used to selectively kill coyotes that attack sheep or goats.
A B C D E F G H I
J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
- The fourth or true digestive
part of a ruminant's stomach that contains gastric juices
and enzymes that begin the breakdown of complex materials.
- Describes any substance
that can cause an abortion.
- The premature delivery of
a non-viable lamb.
- A treatment active against
ticks and mites.
- The management
schedule in which individual ewes lamb more than once
- A measure of the closeness
of a test result to the true value.
Accuracy values (ACC)
- Describes the
reliability of an estimate; associated with Estimated
Breeding Values (EBV), Expected Progeny Differences
(EPD) and Flock Expected Progeny Difference (FEPD).
- A condition when the rumen
becomes too acidic. It is usually due to over-consumption
- Non-heritable resistance
to disease acquired from the dam, developed as a result
of exposure to microorganisms in the environment or
developed from the injection of serums or vaccines.
Across flock ties - Genetic links between individuals
that are in two or more flocks.
- A disease which is
rapid in onset and usually short in duration.
- Unlimited access to feedstuffs.
- Ability of breeds to
survive and produce in a given environment with available
- Gene effects in
which each allele of a gene pair has an independent
negative or positive effect on the expression of a particular
- Nitrogen bound to undigestible
fiber. Represents protein unavailable to the animal.
- Known environmental
and management effects that are part of every performance
measurement and can be accounted for in genetic evaluation
process. Examples include flock, year, season, sex,
age of dam, type of birth, type of rearing, level of
management and age at measurement.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
- A hormone produced by the pituitary that acts on the
adrenal gland for corticosteroid release.
- The placenta expelled
by ewe after lambs are born.
- An instrument used to measure
the average fiber diameter of wool.
- One of a large group of
organic base substances found in plants. These substances
often have toxic effects on animals.
- One group of genes that occupies
a locus on a chromosome.
- An electronic machine used
for calculating the fiber length distribution in wool
- Milk stored in the
vesicles formed by secretory cells.
- The temperature of the environment.
American Wool Logo - Identifies products that are made
with at least 20 percent American Wool (if blended with
other natural fibers) or 30 percent American wool (if
blended with manmade fibers).
- Group of organic compounds
containing nitrogen that are the building blocks of
- Environment that contains
- Refers to the relief of
pain without loss of consciousness.
- Ewes or wethers that
have been given large doses of testosterone.
- Too few red blood cells circulating
in the blood; this can occur from direct loss, as in
hemorrhage or blood sucking parasites, or it can occur
as a result of disease processes that destroy the red
blood cells in the body.
- Loss of sensation or consciousness,
may be local, regional, or general.
- The time in which sheep
are sexually inactive, usually during spring and summer
months. Animal Damage Control (ADC) - Division of Department
of Agriculture that oversees control of predators.
Animal unit month (AUM)
- Amount of
forage used by an animal unit (a cow and her calf) for
one month. Antagonistic correlation - Selection for
one trait results in an undesirable change in correlated
- A chemical treatment
that kills internal parasites, a dewormer.
- Infectious disease also known
as "Wool Sorters" disease.
- A protein formed by the
body's immune system that acts to defend against infections;
high levels of antibody are found in blood and colostrums.
- A component of living organisms
or tissues, usually made of protein, that causes an
antibody response when an animal is exposed to it.
- An antibody product usually
made by immunizing an animal against a specific disease
process and then harvesting and processing blood serum
for the antibodies.
- Inflammation of a joint.
- A division of the Animal
Kingdom that includes the "bugs"; those animals that
have paired jointed legs and hard external skeleton
or shell; includes insects (six-legged), keds, mosquitoes,
flies; and arachnids (eight-legged), mites and ticks.
technique which requires a person to collect semen from
the male and deposit it into the female.
- Raising a lamb
on milk or milk replacer.
- Selection of
breeding stock with the purpose of improving economically
- Hand-held cylinder
containing a glass collection tube that is used to collect
semen from ram.
- Feed "as it is fed"
containing both dry matter and water.
- An inability to coordinate
voluntary muscle movements.
- Acronym for Automatic Tester
for Length And Strength. Available Forage Mass - The
Total Forage Mass less the Residual Forage Mass. This
is the amount of forage that animals can graze or that
will be removed from the field as hay or silage.
- Concept that causes predators
to avoid sheep and seek alternate prey.
- Practice of
feeding a coyote prey-like bait laced with agent (such
as lithium chloride) that causes coyote to become ill
and avoid subsequent contact with prey.
- A pesticide specifically
designed to control birds.
Back To Top
- The washing of dyed or
undyed wool sliver before or after gilling and/or combing.
- A type of vaccine that is
made of killed, whole, bacterial cells, sometimes combined
with a toxoid.
- A compressed pack of wool in
a convenient form for transit, varying in weight from
150 pounds to 1,000 pounds.
- One term used to describe the
mean length of fibers in a top. It is a weight-biased
- Tiny nematode (slender
roundworm approximately one inch in length with red
gut) which causes Haemonchosis.
- Ewes that have not produced
Base carcass price
- The general or
market price level of a carcass. BCS - Body condition
- Wool growing on the belly
of the sheep. It is often uneven, tender, and shorter
than wool from other parts of the body.
- A defect that is
often associated with and commonly referred to as "belly
wool" in which the staple length is comparable to the
rest of the fleece but is not as dense and, like belly
wool, is often discolored, with the crimp appearing
to be more prominent and sometimes finer.
for one trait results in a desirable improvement in
- Diversity of plant species
and other organisms; such as animals, insects, and bacteria,
that exist within the environment of a given area.
- Those management practices
designed to prevent introduction of disease agents to
a flock and those practices that prevent spread of disease
within a flock.
- The mixing together of various
qualities of materials, in either the raw or semi-manufactured
state, in order to modify color, quality, or price of
the resultant bulk.
- Denotes the fineness
of the wool as compared with pure Merino, which is called
- Shearing stroke.
- Gangrene of the udder or
- Viral disease transmitted
by infected biting no-see-ums found throughout the United
States during warm weather.
Body condition score (BCS)
from one to five (thin to fat) used to estimate condition.
- A large oval pill often containing
Bone morphogentic protein receptor 1B (BMPR1B)
- Gene responsible for the high prolificacy Booroola
- Merino sheep that
carries one or two copies of the F-gene, which increases
- Tiny larvae that crawl into
- Large, box-like trap used
for catching bobcats, domestic dogs, and mountain lions.
- The process of breaking
carcasses in a central location and shipping the cuts
in boxes rather than as whole carcasses. Primal and
subprimal cuts are vacuum-packed to increase shelf life.
- Due to illness or poor
nutrition at some time during the growth of the wool,
it is weak at one particular point of the staple but
sound above and below the break.
- Those who cut carcasses into
primal, subprimal and individual cuts for resale to
retail stores and foodservice outlets.
- The selling price
needed to cover all costs.
- The number of ewes
that a ram can mate and still achieve high fertility
within the shortest breeding interval.
- The period of time
when the ewe is showing estrus. Breeding Soundness Examination
(BSE) - Physical and visual examination of a ram (including
a microscopic analysis of his semen) to evaluate reproductive
Breeding Value (BV)
- Genetic effects
that are consistently transmitted from parents to progeny.
- Light-appearing clean
wool, such as is grown in the farming states.
- Wool from the hindquarters
of the sheep, usually the coarsest on the body, often
approaching hair in its characteristics.
- Stage in sheep's life
when teeth begin to fall out.
- Fiber that pulls apart
very easily in a specific position.
- Broad-leafed woody plant,
shrub, bush or tree of small stature.
- The lining of the inside
of the cheek.
- Feed additives that minimize
digestive disturbances by preventing large changes in
rumen pH, particularly when adjusting lambs to finishing
- Tool used to castrate lambs
by severing the cord without breaking the skin of the
- A rough or prickly seed which
becomes entangled in the wool.
- Wool containing vegetable
- Method of fighting among
rams characterized by the striking of the head and horns.
- Protein that passes
through the rumen without being degraded by microorganisms.
- Edible and inedible items
produced from non-meat portion of lamb. Items include
leather, sausage casings, tallow, cosmetics, glycerine,
sutures and lanolin.
Back To Top
amounts of calcium and phosphorus in the total ration.
Usually recommended to be at least 2:1.
- An abnormal concretion occurring
within the animal body and usually composed of mineral
- Imitating the sound of an
injured animal in distress to lure predators to a certain
- An inherited condition
discovered in U.S. polled Dorset sheep which results
in extreme muscle development, especially in loins and
- Type of infectious
abortion also called vibriosis.
- The extracting of vegetable
matter from wool, noil, waste or rags after converting
it into carbon by the action of acid and heat.
- Moderate to highly
heritable traits that are difficult to measure on live
- The weight of the
lamb after it has been slaughtered and the by-products
have been removed.
- After wool is scoured and
dried it is fed into a carding machine which opens up
the wool into an even layer (removing as much burr and
seed as possible) and draws the fibers parallel to each
other to form a single continuous strand of fibers called
- Short, coarse wool used
in the manufacture of carpets.
- Rotting meat of dead animals.
- Small raised areas on the
inner surface of the uterus that form the attachment
sites for the placenta.
- The most important protein
found in milk.
- Products packaged
in the slaughtering or breaking plant which are ready
to be put into the retail store meat case for sale.
- Name of the farm on which the
first sheep milking machine was developed.
- Process of removing testicles
from male lambs.
- A thick, cloudy nasal discharge.
CC or Cubic Centimeter - A common unit of measure for
fluids used in treatments; equivalent to one milliliter
- One of the main fibrous
substances in plant walls. Center-post gate - A gate
with a center post and two swinging gates that can each
swing in a full circle like the hands of a clock.
Central nervous system diseases
affecting the brain and spinal cord.
Central ram test
- See Ram test.
- Region of the female reproductive
tract between the uterus and vagina.
- Temporary or final stopping
- A true, sound-stapled wool
with evenness of quality and regularity of crimp and
- Small organisms (that cannot
live outside of living cells) associated with pneumonia,
abortion, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, arthritis and encephalitis.
- Type of infectious abortion.
The most common abortion disease experienced by the
- DNA molecules that are
organized into pairs in the nucleus of every cell. Each
individual has the exact same set of chromosomes in
every cell and sheep have 54 chromosomes (27 pairs).
- A disease which develops
slowly and runs a prolonged course.
- Disease affecting
the heart and blood.
- Reservoir in the udder in
which the milk is stored.
- Preliminary sorting of the
fleece according to its quality.
- Refers to the price of
the clean, scoured wool, excluding loss and charges
due to scouring.
- The color of the wool
after scouring. Measured in terms of brightness and
yellowness, both of which can affect dyeing potential.
- Wool after it has been scoured
or cleaned, removing dirt, grease, and other foreign
material. Clean wool fibers present (CWFP) - That portion
of the wool which is free of all vegetable and other
- Signs of disease
are apparent from observation of the animal.
- One season's yield of wool.
- The production of genes or
individuals which are genetically the same as the donor.
- Anaerobic bacteria
that produce spores under certain conditions.
- Short fibers used in
the manufacture of woolens.
- The allele that results in the
callipyge condition of extreme muscle development.
- Part of the milking machine
including the teat cups and the claw.
- The extremely coarse
fibers in a given lot of wool.
- Disease in feeder lambs
characterized by diarrhea, dehydration, loss of weight,
- A drug used to interrupt
the life cycle of coccidian in the intestine of the
sheep; only lasalocid and decoquinate are approved for
use in sheep at the present time.
- A defect in a pelt caused
- The phenotypic situation
when both alleles of a heterozygous pair express themselves
- A sequence of three of the
basic components of DNA molecule which specify the production
of a particular amino acid. Coefficient of variation
(CV%) - A statistical term used to describe the amount
of variation within a set of measurements.
- Presence of colors,
other than white, which cannot be removed in scouring.
- The ratio of
colored-to-white fibers in a given lot of wool.
- An instrument used to
measure the clean color of wool.
- The first milk produced,
rich in antibodies, energy, and vitamin A.
- Most accurate
method of artificial selection based on an individual's
breeding value, which was estimated by combining all
performance information for selected and correlated
- Process by which the short
fibers, entangled fibers and vegetable material are
separated from the long fibers and the latter are straightened
out and laid parallel to each other.
- Flock that sells
pounds of lamb and wool instead of breeding stock.
- A company which sells livestock
for a commission or a fee based on a percentage of total
- Animal in an individual's
pedigree that is found on both the sire and dam side.
- Infectious disease
which spreads rapidly from one individual to another.
All contagious diseases are infectious, but not all
infectious diseases are contagious.
- Mating system that
places breeds in complementary roles that maximize strengths
and minimize weakness.
- Crossing of two or
more breeds with subsequent mating among these crossbred
ewes and rams.
- Market dominance by
a few large firms in an industry.
- The degree of oil in grease
- Estimating the
amount of fat cover on a sheep by feeling along the
back and over the loin.
- Allowing textile materials,
slivers, yarns, and fabrics to come to hygroscopic equilibrium
with the surrounding atmosphere or with the standard
atmosphere for testing.
- Used to express
the precision of a measure.
- General body proportions
of the animal and the ratio of meat to bone.
- The ability of a disease
to spread to another animal. Contemporary group - A
uniformly managed group of animals of similar breed
composition, age, and sex. A method of adjusting for
unknown non-genetic effects.
- Trait with a value
that cannot be classified into discrete categories.
- The principle of
letting sheep think that they are escaping their handlers.
Cool season grasses
- Grasses that
form a 3-carbon carbohydrate as the first product of
photosynthesis. These species provide grazing in the
spring and then generally mature during the summer becoming
- Marketing method used
by small independent producers to collectively sell
their product in order to gain some advantages of economies
Cooperative Extension Service
arm of the USDA located in each state and most counties.
Cooperative wool warehouses
- A company
organized as a cooperative which collects, stores, and
- The sample extracted
from a bale of wool by inserting a sharpened hollow
tube the length of the bale.
- The junction between
the hoof wall and the skin above the hoof.
- Structure on ovary
that produces progesterone after ovulation.
- Change in one
trait is caused by selection for another trait that
is correlated to it.
- Two traits affected
by some of the same gene pairs. Selection for a trait
will result in some change for any traits that are correlated.
- A measure of the relationship
(can be positive or negative) between two variables.
Corticosteroids - Steroid hormones produced by the adrenal
gland after ACTH stimulation.
- A fleece in which the
fibers are matted or tangled. Count of yarn - A number
indicating the mass per unit length or the length per
unit mass of a yarn.
- The requirement
that certain retail meat cuts and ground product be
labeled as to country of origin.
- Major predator of sheep in
the western United States.
- Process used in the worsted
trade to set the fabric in a smooth flat state so that
it will not cockle, pucker or wrinkle during subsequent
- Method of providing
supplemental feed for lambs during the nursing period.
- The natural waviness of the
- Maximum or minimum
environmental temperature tolerated by the animal before
additional dietary energy is required to maintain normal
- Necessary residual
forage of grain production.
- The offspring resulting
from mating a ram and ewe of different breeds.
- Mating plan involving
two or more breeds.
- Solid gate used to move
sheep into smaller area.
Crude fiber (CF)
- Antiquated measure
of the fibrous portion of feed.
Crude protein (CP)
- Term representing
both true protein and non-protein nitrogen content.
- Shearing of wool from around
the dock and udder.
- Wool removed from the
fleece a month or two before the final shearing.
- See Cryptorchism.
- Failure of one or both
testes to descend from the abdominal cavity into the
scrotum during fetal development. Also known as retained
- Organism that proliferates
in small intestine and possibly cecum.
- Process of removing animals
that are below average in production, unsound, or undesirable.
- Sheep which are below a required
- Process that uses salt to
preserve pelt by creating an environment in which protein-destroying
organisms cannot function.
- The practice of having
livestock fed and managed for the livestock owner in
another facility for a fee.
- Value of lamb products
and byproducts from slaughtering and processing.
- See-through gate used
to sort sheep to different pens.
found in plant leaves which are acted upon by rumen
microorganisms to produce cyanide.
- Physiological problem
found in cycling ewes.
- The condition where
a larval form of a tapeworm has encysted or embedded
itself in the tissue of its host.
Back To Top
- The mother.
- Breed noted for adaptability
to the production environment and high levels of performance
for wool production, litter size, milk production, mothering
ability, or out-of-season breeding ability.
- Wool removed from the skin
of dead sheep (not slaughtered) by sweating.
- Finishing process, chiefly
to improve the handle and appearance of fabric, in which
the fabric, wound tightly on a perforated roller, is
either immersed in hot water, which is also circulated
through the fabric, or has steam blown through it.
- Characteristic which reduces
the possibility of survival or impairs the producing
ability of the animal. Deleterious alleles - Alleles
that cause genetic abnormalities.
- The market clearing price-quantity
relationship for a product at any point in time.
- Locating the den and removing
the pups and/or the adult pair of coyotes responsible
- The number of fibers produced
on a given area of the sheep's body.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
material which controls how an animal looks and performs.
DNA molecules are organized into pairs of chromosomes.
- Thick inner layer of sheep
skin that extends down to the muscle.
- A method used to compare
genetic value of animals within a contemporary group.
A deviation is the difference between the performance
of an individual and the mean performance of its contemporaries.
- Management practice of
administering medication to alleviate internal worms.
- Dairy Herd Improvement Association.
- Disease of the
stomach and/or intestines.
- Fluid containing an energy
source (fructose or glucose), chemical buffer, antibiotics
and a cryoprotectant that is added to semen.
- Marketing process in
which producers bypass traditional channels by dealing
directly with final buyer. (RT: Direct marketing, Forward
contract, Order buyer, Packer.)
- Traits that can be
classified, with little or no error, into distinct categories.
- Process of removing long
- Short, harsh, coarser
than type, comparatively straight wools.
- All wools grown in
the United States.
- In a heterozygous gene pair,
it is the allele that expresses itself. A dominant allele
is usually denoted by upper case letters.
- The process of
transmitting ultrasound frequencies that are modified
proportionally to the velocity of a moving object. Frequency
shifts can be used to determine a fetal heartbeat and
- A number of laps, slivers,
slubbings and rovings fed simultaneously into a machine
for drafting into a single end.
- The process for attenuating
laps, slivers, slubbings and rovings to decrease the
mass per unit length.
- Natural areas or places
set up intentionally to draw coyotes or red foxes to
a particular location.
- Operations by which slivers
are blended, leveled, and by drafting, reduced to the
stage of roving.
- Bird toxicant used for control
- The oral administration
Dressing percentage (DP)
- The carcass
weight divided by the live weight.
- Each day the ewes that
have not lambed are moved to a new pasture and the ewes
with newborn lambs are left behind.
- Frozen carbon dioxide (CO2)
at -110Á F.
Dry matter (DM)
- The portion of the
feed that is not water.
- Period of ewe's production
cycle in which she is not lactating or pregnant.
- Worsted yarn produced from
- Two products marketed
from the same animal, wool and meat for sheep.
- Breeds that can
be used as ewe or ram breed depending upon production
- Inherited defect in which
animals grow to a smaller size than normal.
- Difficult lamb birth.
Back To Top
E. coli scours
- Disease that affects
lambs in first five to seven days of life causing watery,
yellow diarrhea, dehydration, and rapid death.
- Branch of biology that deals
with the relationship between living organisms and their
Economically important traits
traits which directly impact profitability.
Economies of size
- The per-unit cost
advantage associated with larger size operations.
- Functional relationships
between the physical and biological components of a
- The accumulation of abnormal
amounts of fluid in the tissue of the body.
- Semen sample of ram.
- Ability to return to former
position or length after being stretched, due in large
part to soundness and crimp.
- An instrument used to
apply elastrator rings, which are heavy constrictive
rubber bands that are placed around the base of the
tail or scrotum for tail docking and castration.
heavy-duty rubber bands that are used to castrate and
- Management procedure
used to ejaculate ram for semen collection.
- A solution of crucial
salts administered to replace those lost during illness.
- Markets, such as
teleauctions, computer auctions and satellite auctions,
that allow producers to expose their products to buyers
outside of their local area.
- Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent
Assay. A method of testing for various diseases including
a Brucella Ovis infection.
- To waste away physically.
Emasculatome (Burdizzo tool)
- An instrument
used to crush the spermatic cord within the scrotum
without surgically opening the scrotum
- An instrument used to
surgically remove the testicles and which is designed
to crush the spermatic cord while cutting it above the
testicle. It is sometimes used for tail docking.
- Recently fertilized
eggs from donor ewe are transferred to the uterus of
a recipient ewe, usually by surgically exposing the
uterus of the recipient.
- Inflammation of the
brain usually with severe signs, such as fever, incoordination,
Endangered Species Act (ESA)
that protects threatened species.
- A component of gram negative
bacterial cell walls that can produce signs of depression,
dehydration, diarrhea, circulatory collapse, and shock.
When the bacteria die, the endotoxin is absorbed from
the digestive tract, lungs, or other tissues.
- An inflammation of the
Enterotoxemia type C
- Disease that
affects lambs in first two weeks of life causing bloody
infection of the small intestine and rapid death.
Enterotoxemia type C and D toxoid
Vaccination given to young lambs to build up antibodies
against Enterotoxemia type C and D. It also is available
combined with the tetanus vaccination.
Enterotoxemia type D
- Disease that
affects unvaccinated lambs that have been placed on
- A turning in of the eyelid
such that the eyeball is irritated by the hair and wool.
- A type of protein that facilitates
a metabolic reaction.
- The study of the factors
which determine the frequency and incidence of disease
in animal and human populations.
- Outer layer of sheep skin.
- Male reproductive organ
at base of scrotum that stores semen.
- Inflammation of the
epididymis, tubular portion of the testis that collects
the sperm from the testicle.
- "Above the dura" referring
to the placement of an anesthetic agent or other drug
in the spinal canal.
- Interaction among genes
at different loci. The expression of genes at one locus
may be influenced by genes present at another locus.
- Tube placed down
esophagus of lamb to administer milk or other liquid.
Estimated Breeding Value (EBV)
of genetic value derived from the application of genetic
theory and statistics to performance records.
- Hormone that causes regression
of the corpus luteum and stimulates estrus.
- Time period from the
beginning of one heat to the beginning of the next heat.
Usually approximately 16-17 days.
- Period of time when the female
is sexually receptive to the male. Usually 24-36 hours.
Also known as "heat."
- The agent that causes the
- The induction of death
in an animal quickly and painlessly.
- A female sheep.
- Usually white-faced breeds
of fine-wool type developed primarily from crosses of
fine and long-wool types and highly prolific breeds.
- Physiological effect that
causes increased blood concentrations of LH in ram in
response to females in estrus.
- A toxin produced by bacteria
that is liberated into the surrounding tissues or blood
stream and which may have specific effects; tetanus
toxin, epsilon toxin from C. perfringens in exterotoxemia.
Expected Progeny Difference (EPD)
An estimate of how much better or poorer an individual's
progeny will perform compared to the average of all
individuals in the breed. EPD is one half of the EBV.
- Production system
where sheep graze most or all of the year on pastures
or range. Minimal facilities are required.
External fat thickness
- Amount of
fat over the ribeye muscle between the 12th and 13th
rib. Used to calculate yield grade.
- Parasites that
may be found on the fleece, skin and in the nasal and
Back To Top
- A manufactured assembly of
fibers and/or yarns.
- Process of cutting lamb
carcasses into wholesale or primal cuts in the slaughter
- Correcting wool blindness
by removing wool from face.
- Straight, pinned, metal bars
employed in the control of fibers between drafting rollers.
- Selection or rejection
of whole families according to the average performance
or phenotypic value of the family.
- Essential elements of
- Animal with temperature above
- A textile structure composed
entirely of fibers physically interlocked and consolidated
by the utilization of mechanical work, chemical action
and moisture not by weaving, knitting, stitching, thermal
bonding or adhesive.
- The property of wool fibers
to interlock with each other if they are rubbed together
under pressure in moist condition while being heated.
- Microbial decomposition
of organic matter in an oxygen-free (anaerobic) environment.
- Proportion or percentage
of ewes lambing that were exposed to ram.
- The unborn lamb during its
development in a ewe's uterus.
- Gene that has major control
- A unit of matter characterized
by flexibility, fineness, and high ratio of length to
- Thickness of individual
Fiber fineness distribution analyzer
- Machine that measures the diameter of several thousand
individual fiber snippets and calculates both the average
fiber diameter and the fiber diameter variability.
- Describes the length
of an individual wool fiber or group of fibers.
- A small extension
of the penile urethra from the end of the ram's penis.
- Crosswise threads or yarns
in a cloth, used to "fill" the warp.
- The risk associated
with not repaying debt or paying expenses.
- A grade of wool in the American
system of grading. Equivalent of 64s, 70s and 80s spinning
- A general term used for
textile fibers, yarns, and fabrics with special references
to their transverse dimensions.
- Everything that happens
to wool fabric after leaving the loom until it is ready
for the cutter.
- The amount of intramuscular
fat found in the flank. Used to determine quality grade.
- Small, self-closing gate
that a sheep can push open. Used to "lead" sheep.
- The entire coat of wool shorn
from the sheep at one time.
- Moderately to highly
heritable traits that determine the value of the wool
- (1) Wool other than the
first clip, just as it is shorn from live sheep. (RT:
Lamb's wool, Virgin wool, Yearling wool), (2) Wool grown
in the farm areas of the Dakotas, Nebraska, Kansas,
Oklahoma, and parts of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa and
- Behavioral display of "lip
curl" made by ram in response to ewe in estrus.
- Minimum zone of comfort
Flock Expected Progeny Difference (FEPD)
- An estimate of how much better or poorer an individual's
progeny will perform compared to the average of all
individuals within its flock. Measure of genetic value
- Social and behavioral
relationship that causes animals to remain as a group.
- Shearer makes an effort
to drop the leg and belly wool onto the shearing floor
so that it can be picked up.
- Management practice of improving
a ewe's plane of nutrition just prior to mating to improve
- Blow or bottle flies that
are attracted to soiled wool, wounds, and dying tissue.
Causes myiasis or maggot infestation.
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
- Protein hormone released by the pituitary; stimulates
the development of follicles on the ovary.
- Small blister-like structures
on the surface of the ovary. The egg or ovum is located
within the follicle.
- Inanimate objects that may
carry or harbor disease causing germs: clothing, boots,
shearing equipment, grooming equipment.
Food service industry
- The group of
companies and institutions which prepare and serve food,
such as restaurants, nursing homes, and airlines.
- Chemical and water mixture,
that sheep stand in, used for prevention and/or treatment
of foot rot and footscald.
- Fiber-containing feedstuffs,
such as silage, hay, and pasture.
- Broadleafed, herbaceous plants.
Many are commonly referred to as "weeds" but some can
be nutritious forages.
- Pen used to confine small
groups of animals prior to moving them into treatment
- Agreement between
buyer and seller specifying price and future delivery
Four-firm concentration ratio
of the industry's sheep and lambs that are slaughtered
by the four largest firms.
- Classification used to
determine feeder lamb grades based on the projected
weight when slaughter lambs reach 0.2-inch fat thickness.
- This term is used to indicate
the absence of defects (usually means free from burrs).
- Blood grade denoting
a wool long enough to be combed on a French comb but
too short to be combed on a Noble comb.
- Short and dirty locks of small
size such as dungy bits of wool and second cuts.
- Tactics useful
for reducing predator losses for short periods until
predators can be removed.
- A lifeless appearing
wool with the fibers lying in random directions. Usually
dry and harsh.
- The process of consolidating
or compacting fabric by combining the effects of moisture,
heat and pressure to permanently shrink and felt the
- Animals that have the same
sire and dam.
Back To Top
- Restraining device
that is a gambrel-shaped piece of PVC plastic that is
placed over the top of the animal's neck, with slots
on either side to hold both front legs of the animal.
- Australian term referring to
long, medullated fibers lacking crimp, generally found
in the britch wool of the sheep.
- Shredding a used wool
product back into a fibrous state prior to manufacturing
a new product.
- An inflammation of
the stomach and intestine.
for the digestion and absorption of nutrients from the
diet as well as the elimination of undigested dietary
residues and excretion of solid waste products.
- Fenced pen that will
comfortably hold the largest number of sheep you expect
to work at one time.
- Found in pairs in chromosomes,
genes form the coding system that directs the production
of enzymes and other proteins which influence development,
performance, and appearance of an animal.
- Movement of a gene
of one individual to another individual of the same
or different species.
- The average time
lapse between birth of an animal and birth of its replacement.
- Relative change
in one trait associated with selection for another.
Traits are affected by some of the same gene pairs.
Genetic improvement per generation
- Heritability multiplied by selection differential.
Genetic improvement per year
of expressing the effectiveness of a selection program.
- Genes located close
to a gene of interest on the same chromosome.
- Diagram showing assignment
of genes and genetic markers to specific regions along
the 27 chromosomes.
- Genetic composition of an
individual or a listing of genes that an individual
- Period of pregnancy beginning
at conception and ending with lambing.
- A drafting machine, used
in worsted processing, in which the motion of the fibers
is in part controlled by pins fixed on moving bars.
- Blending and drawing operation
that is applied to card sliver before combing.
- Substances found in some
plants that prevent the thyroid gland from properly
accumulating nutritional iodine.
- The theory
that during the prepuberal and anestrous period the
hypothalamus becomes very sensitive to negative feedback
effects of estrogen and decreases reproductive activity.
Gonadotropin releasing hormone(GnRH)
- Hormone released by the hypothalamus, which stimulates
FSH and LH release from the pituitary.
- Category of hormones
used to stimulate follicle development and induce follicles
- Sample of greasy wool
taken at random positions from every bale in a sale
- The relative fineness of the
wool determined by the average of the diameters in a
- Fleeces that have been
individually handled and visually classed according
to fiber diameter, length, and other processing characteristics.
Grading - 1) Grouping fleeces according to measurable
characteristics such as fineness, yield, vegetable matter,
length, strength and color. 2) Determining quality of
- Repeated crossing of ewes
and their female progeny to rams of a single breed to
produce a flock representative of the sire breed that
will eventually be indistinguishable from a purebred
flock of that breed.
- Fostering a lamb onto a
ewe that is not its natural mother.
- Plant species that generally
have long, narrow leaves, jointed stems, flowers on
stems, and seed-like fruit.
- Number of days that
animals remain in the same paddock.
- A graphical tool for
planning grazing movements. A histogram showing the
total forage mass for every paddock on the farm, in
- Price paid for grease
wool. Determined by multiplying the yield times the
- Wool in its natural state.
Greasy heavily conditioned wool - Refers to low-yielding
wool with a high content of grease and suint, and its
ability to attract and react with dirt, moisture and
Group breeding scheme
- Complex selection
system involving a number of cooperating flocks.
- Pricing method by
which packers calculate payment for slaughter lambs
on a fixed dressing percentage.
- Dog that stays with sheep
without harming them and aggressively repels predators.
- Stage in sheep's life when
they have no teeth at all.
Back To Top
- Region where a plant or animal
naturally grows or lives.
- Straight, non-elastic and glossy
fiber that is stronger, smoother and usually coarser
- Sheep of tropical origin,
lacking wool. Coat resembles that of cattle or many
- American designation of
wool compared in fineness to the full-blooded Merino
- Animals that have either
the same sire or the same dam.
- Management practice
that keeps rams and ewes separated until individual
ewes can be mated to specific rams.
- Method of feeding animals
at regular intervals, allowing them to clean up the
feed before they are fed again.
- Term used to denote wool quality
when wool is judged by feel.
- Term used to describe the
mean fiber length in the top.
- State of well-being in which
an animal can express its genetic potential. Heat increment
- Heat produced in the body from digestive processes.
- Wool with a high shrinkage
- An instrument used
for counting sperm cells and estimating sperm concentration.
- Referring to any process
where red blood cells are destroyed directly.
- A loss of blood.
- Animals that consume primarily
grass and other plant materials.
- Person(s) responsible for
the care of sheep while in large pastures.
- The proportion
of differences among animals for performance traits
that are due to differences in the additive effects
of the genes they possess.
- Condition in which a weakness
of the abdominal inguinal rings allows the intestines
to descend into the scrotum.
- Hybrid vigor. Superiority
of a crossbred individual relative to the average performance
of the purebred parents included in the cross.
- Medullated fibers that
generally lack crimp and tend to be longer than true
wool fibers and finer than kemp fibers.
- Genetic profile in which
the two genes that form a gene pair are different. High-tensile
wire - Steel wire having greater elasticity than regular
wire of the same strength. When stretched, it will retain
its tension longer without sagging.
Hirschmann-Herfindahl Index (HHI)
A measure of concentration in an industry. The higher
the value, the more concentrated the industry.
- Pen that is filled as
sheep are sorted.
- Genetic profile in which
the two genes that form a gene pair are identical.
- Chemical substance produced
in one region of the body which is transported to a
different region and has a specific action on a target
- Removing muscles prior
to chilling carcass.
Hot carcass weight
- Weight taken on
slaughter floor immediately after head, pelt and other
byproducts have been removed.
- Tool used to dock lambs
by cutting and cauterizing the tail. When properly used,
there is little bleeding and little chance for infection.
- Dogs often trained to
find coyote dens and then distract coyote until the
hunter gets a clear shot.
Hybrid Vigor (HV)
- Heterosis. Superiority
of a crossbred individual relative to the average performance
of the purebred parents included in the cross.
- Cysts found in the body
cavity of sheep.
- Abnormal condition
of water in the brain.
- More than the normal amount
of blood in an area causing increased redness.
- A stage of parasite larval
dormancy where nematode parasite larvae escape harsh
environmental conditions by remaining in the wall of
- Low levels of calcium
in the blood.
- Low levels of blood
sugar; often seen in pregnancy disease.
Hypothalamic pulse generator
- An indistinct
region of the hypothalamus that produces a regular rhythmic
pattern of electrical activity, like the pacemaker of
- A part of the brain
that processes the internal and external cues involved
in controlling reproductive functions.
- Body temperature below
the normal range; usually seen in newborn lambs but
can be observed in adults under severe environmental
conditions of cold and moisture.
Back To Top
- The resistance to infection.
- The system of the body
that protects it from disease.
- Natural or acquired resistance
of the animal to "germs" or factors causing the disease.
- Unable to mount an
immune response to a disease.
- A technique
that uses specialized antibodies to label, or make visible,
tiny structures in cells observed under the light microscope.
These structures might otherwise be invisible and include
such particles as viruses and prions.
- The process in which
the fertilized embryo attaches to the uterine wall.
- Products purchased from another
- Genetic phenomenon in
which only one of two alleles is actively expressed
in an individual, depending on the sex of the parent
from which the gene came.
In the grease
- Signifies wool in its
natural state, as it comes from the sheep's back with
all the grease and other impurities attached to it.
- Mating of individuals
more closely related than the average of the breed.
- Value that
expresses the amount an individual is inbred.
- Reduced performance
that results from inbreeding.
- The time interval
between contracting the "germs" which causes the disease
and the actual development of symptoms.
Independent culling levels (ICL)
Multiple-trait selection method in which minimum standards
are set for each trait.
- Traits that have
no genes in common and a genetic correlation of zero.
- Selecting potential
parents on their own performance record or phenotype.
- Invasion of the body by
harmful bacteria, viruses, or parasites other than insects.
- Disease caused
by infectious agents, such as bacteria and viruses,
commonly referred to as germs. Can be treated with antibiotics.
- The invasion of the body
- A basic response of
the body to an injury, irritation, or infection; it
is characterized by heat, redness, swelling, and pain.
- Oviductal tissue, adjacent
to ovaries, that catches the egg at ovulation and directs
it to the oviduct.
- To swallow.
- A characteristic
inherited from parents that reduces the possibility
of survival or impairs productive ability.
Integrated predation management
practice of including good husbandry practices with
effective control methods.
Integrated Resource Management (IRM)
- A systematic approach to management, entailing both
production and financial management.
- Disease affecting
the skin, hooves, or horns.
- Production system
where sheep are fed harvested feed thus requiring higher
levels of management and facilities.
- An animal or other
living body in which a parasite completes part of its
life cycle and usually causes no damage.
- Parasites, generally
a type of nematode worm, located in the stomach and
intestine of sheep.
International unit (IU)
- Unit of measurement
of the potency or biological activity of vitamins and
Intramuscular injection (IM)
- An injection
into the heavy muscle tissue.
- Inside the abdominal
cavity but outside the intestines; usually refers to
where injections of fluid or medications are given.
Intrauterine artificial insemination
- Surgical insemination using a laparoscope, in which
semen is injected directly into uterine horn.
Intravenous injection (IV)
- An injection
directly into the bloodstream (usually through the jugular
- Disinfectant used on navels
of newborns that helps dry up the navel, thus destroying
the passageway into the body of the lamb. Veterinary
tincture of iodine contains 7 percent iodine, while
common tincture of iodine for humans contains 2 percent
Back To Top