A comprehensive listing of terms used in the sheep industry has been compiled as a reference tool for producers, consumers and media. This glossary has been extracted from the ASI Publication The Sheep Industry Handbook.
1080 livestock protection collar - Tool used to selectively kill coyotes that attack sheep or goats.
A B C D E F G H I
J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
- A yellowish appearance of
the mucous membranes including inside the mouth or the
white of the eye. This discoloration is also evident
in the internal tissues of the body and is usually the
result of liver failure and destruction of red blood
cells in the body.
- Inexpensive nozzle device
for spraying sheep while they are restrained in chute.
- Infected joints, also called
- A small pen for the ewe and newborn
lamb that facilitates ewe/lamb bonding and care of the
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- Bloodsucking wingless flies
(ticks) that pierce the skin causing serious damage
- An opaque fiber present in badly
bred wools, which appears not to absorb dye and consequently
is prominent in the finished fabric unless further treated
in some way.
- Protein found in wool fiber.
- Compounds found in the blood
of pregnant sheep suffering from pregnancy toxemia.
Kidney and pelvic fat
- The amount
of fat (expressed as a percentage of carcass weight)
surrounding the kidneys in the pelvic cavity. Used to
calculate yield grade.
- Worksheet provided by
packer to producer that contains live and dressed weights,
dressing percentages, and quality grade.
- The unit of measurement used
to express linear density, defined as grams per meter.
- Procedure for measuring
the nitrogen content of a feedstuffs. Nitrogen x 6.25
= the crude protein content of that feedstuffs.
- Interlacing of a yarn in
a series of connected loops by needles to form fabric.
- Animal that has produced
lambs with a genetic defect.
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- Secretion of abnormal
or excessive amount of tears.
- The period of time in which
ewe is producing milk.
Lamb coat graft
- Grafting method in
which pelt skinned from dead lamb is tied to lamb to
- Production process where
lambs are fed from weaning weight to slaughter weight.
Lambing jugs or pens
- Small pens that
lambs and ewes are placed in for a short time after
the lambs are born.
Lambs weaned per ewe exposed
of reproductive efficiency. Calculated by dividing the
number of lambs weaned by the number of ewes that were
exposed to rams.
- Wool shorn from lambs
that is soft and has superior spinning properties.
- Purified wool grease.
- Surgical method of artificial
insemination that deposits semen directly into uterus.
- Immature worms which have
hatched from eggs and attached themselves to pasture
- An ionophore approved for
prevention of coccidiosis of lambs in confinement.
Leg conformation score
- Score based
on proportion of carcass weight that is in the leg.
Used to calculate yield grade.
- Family of plants that have
seeds growing in pods.
- In describing wool, this term
refers to the length of a wool fiber or group of fibers.
- Any pathological or traumatic
change in tissues of the body or loss of function of
- Quality or state of being
lazy or indifferent.
- Endocrine cell of the
testis, which produce testosterone.
- Massive release of LH that
occurs after the onset of estrus and initiates ovulation.
- Amount of interest ram has
in mating ewes.
Lift swing gate
- A gate that can be
lifted straight up and swung back above the incoming
- Use of close relatives,
such as sons and grandsons, in a breeding program to
retain merits of an ancestor.
- Genes located close to one
another on the same chromosome that tend to be inherited
- Nitrogen in a liquid
form at -320Á F.
- Small leaf-shaped organism
that rolls up like a scroll in the bile ducts or liver
- Refers to
how uniformly different sections of the range are grazed.
- Chute used for loading
sheep and lambs into truck or trailer.
- Disease affecting
a certain portion of the body.
- A tuft of wool.
Locus (plural loci)
- The physical
location of a gene on a chromosome.
l - Open, full of "life" wool
that springs back into normal position after being crushed
in the hand.
- An improved English type
or breed, such as the Lincoln, Leicester, or Cotswold,
or a high-grade cross of longwool sheep; coarse, strong
wool which often reaches 12 inches or longer at 12 months'
growth under favorable conditions.
- Machine for producing clothing
- Infestation of biting,
sucking, wingless lice.
- Coarse wools similar in
grade to domestic common and braid.
- Roundworms found in respiratory
tract and lung tissue.
- The natural gloss of mohair,
alpaca, Leicester and Lincoln wool.
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
hormone released by the pituitary; the LH surge initiates
ovulation and corpus luteum development.
- The process involved in
the death of the corpus luteum.
- A part of the immune
system which is made up of lymph nodes and a system
of ducts which drain fluids from the tissues.
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- Spring-activated device used
to propel sodium cyanide into animal's mouth.
- Formation of the mammary
Management Intensive Grazing
- A grazing
system which maximizes the efficiency of forage growth
and in which forage is allocated to livestock by fencing
an appropriate area of a pasture. In this system, animal
demand is balanced against forage supply throughout
the grazing season.
Mandatory Price Reporting
- The required
reporting of the terms and quantities of cash sales,
contract, and formula transactions for meat and meat
- Mites which infest and
damage the skin and wool.
- Manufactured fiber
rather than naturally produced fiber.
Market demand curve
- The total quantities
of a good that consumers are willing and able to purchase
over a given period of time at various alternative prices,
holding constant everything else that affects demand,
e.g., income and tastes.
- Those activities
that must be performed while moving sheep and lambs
from producers to consumers.
- The difference between
retail and farm level prices.
- The risk of a price
- Strap or rope harness
containing a colored marker that is placed on a ram
during the breeding season to determine cycling activity
of ewe flock, monitor breeding activity of ram, and
predict lambing dates.
- Inflammation of the mammary
gland resulting in reduced milk production.
- Sorting fleeces and putting
together those portions of different fleeces which correspond
Maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP)
- The process which occurs in females after fertilization
for maintenance of the corpus luteum and pregnancy.
- The number of ewes
that a ram can mate and still achieve high fertility.
- Method by which breeds
and individuals are paired at mating.
- A statistical term. Same as
- Process in which machines
are used to remove large pieces of meat from carcasses.
Mechanical pelt puller
device used by packer to remove pelt from slaughtered
- Process in
which machines remove small pieces of meat left on irregularly
- The thick tan or yellow
fecal material passed by the lamb in the uterus and
during the first few hours of life.
- Medullated fibers that
tend to be finer than kemp fibers, longer than true
wool fibers and generally lacking crimp.
- Refers to the wools
that grade high quarter-blood, three-eighths-blood and
- Central core of medium and
coarse wools, kemp and heterotype fibers. Medullated
fiber - An animal fiber that in its original state includes
an open core.
- Hormone secreted by pineal
gland (located at base of brain) that when supplemented
to ewe over a period of time simulates the endocrine
events of short days.
- Infection of the meninges,
which are the thin membranes surrounding the brain.
- Disturbances of
normal body functions which lead to disease processes.
- Science of measurement.
In the wool industry often applied to fibers.
- Bacteria and
- A unit of measurement,
used commercially to express the average fiber diameter.
- Unit of measurement, equals
1/1,000,000 of a meter or 1/25,000 of an inch. Used
in defining wool grades.
- Technique for objectively
measuring the average diameter and variation of wool.
- Company which provides
services between production and consumption stages.
- Speed and volume at which
the milk is expulsed from the udder.
- Artificial milk substitute
fed to young lambs.
- Removal of the milk from
the udder either by hand or by machine.
- Wool purchased for
processing by woolen mills.
- Inorganic substance found
naturally in all body cells, tissues and fluids.
ml or milliliter
- One one-thousandth
of a liter; equivalent to one cubic centimeter (cc).
Model Feed Bill
- Law which guarantees
the label will identify and describe the product, how
it is to be used, and indicate any precautions.
Molecular Diagnostic Test
- DNA test
to determine the genotype of an individual at the specific
- Measuring changes in the
plant community within a given area over time.
- Non-ruminant animal.
- Brown fleece caused by gene
- Condition caused by disease.
- A type of wild sheep.
- Management technique used
to determine age by counting the number of permanent
practice used by many large sheep operations that uses
more than one ram in a breeding group at a time.
for several traits at the same time.
- The use of more
than one species on the farm for grazing.
- An increase in
the size of individual muscle fibers.
- The meat of an older sheep.
- Maggot infection of animal
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National Sheep Improvement Program (NSIP)
- National, standardized system for measuring genetic
improvement by providing purebred and commercial producers
with a performance recording and genetic evaluation
program. Natural immunity - Inherited resistance to
disease that varies between breeds, strains within breeds
- Survival of the
fittest; allows sheep that are best adapted to their
environment to survive and produce the largest number
of offspring. Necropsy - A thorough examination of a
dead animal including examination of the internal organ
systems and often diagnostic testing of tissues and
- An increase
in one trait results in a decrease in another correlated
- The first few hours or days
- A newborn animal.
- Small "balls" of entangled wool
fibers ranging in size from "pin points" to approximately
2 mm in diameter which are created during processing.
Net energy (NE)
- Residual energy in
a feedstuffs after fecal, urinary, gaseous, and heat
losses. Is the actual energy used for maintenance and
production. Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis - An inherited
blindness due to a dominant allele.
- Targeted, specialized
- Management practice
that removes rams from the ewe flock during warm days
and returns them to the flock at night for breeding.
- Large group of common
weeds that paralyze the nervous system causing rapid
bloating, respiratory failure and death.
- Condition in which
toxic levels of nitrates accumulate in plants.
Nitrogen-to-Sulfur ratio (N:S)
amounts of nitrogen and sulfur in the total ration.
Usually recommended to be approximately 10:1.
- The short and tangled fibers
which are separated from the long fibers, known as top,
on a worsted comb.
or metabolic problem not caused by "germs," bacteria,
or viruses. Antibiotics have no effect on non-infectious
Non-protein nitrogen (NPN)
containing nitrogen that are not true proteins. Normal
curve - Bell-shaped curve indicating that many animals
in the flock will have performance values near the flock
average and relatively few animals will have either
very low or very high performance.
- See Bots.
- Tiny flying insects (gnats)
that can carry various diseases.
- A group-breeding scheme
in which cooperating breeders select the best ewes from
their flocks and pool them into a single flock to be
managed on one property with a goal of developing a
more productive sheep for their use.
- Usually due to
lack or excess of required nutrients such as in malnutrition,
obesity, vitamin and/or mineral deficiencies and toxicities.
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- Unbiased measurement
of wool fiber characteristics by mechanical or electronic
- The by-products of sorting
consisting of the less desirable parts of the fleece.
- Third part of the ruminant
stomach located between the reticulum and the abomasum.
Functions primarily for water absorption.
- Older ewes purchased
for one lambing.
- Within-flock genetic
evaluation to help breeders identify high-producing
rams and ewes.
- A stage in the life cycle
of coccidia (a protozoal parasite) that is shed in manure
back into the environment. Sheep become infected by
ingesting oocysts from contaminated pastures.
- Continuous movement
of ewes into the nucleus flock from cooperative breeders.
- Not densely grown on the
sheep and often parted down the spine.
- The production
of spun yarns by a process in which the sliver or roving
is opened or separated to its individual fibers or tufts
and is consequently reassembled in the spinning element
into a yarn.
- The action of separating
closely packed fibers from each other at an early stage
in the processing of raw material into yarn.
- Term used to designate
wool of relatively uniform grade and length packaged
in bags by the producer.
- Mating of individuals
less closely related than the average of the breed.
- The act of
producing lambs in the summer or fall.
- Female reproductive organ responsible
for producing ova (eggs).
- Type of gene action
in which the heterozygous individual has a higher or
lower performance than either homozygote.
Over-the-counter drugs (OTC)
that can be purchased directly by producer.
- Region of the female reproductive
tract between the ovary and uterus containing the site
Ovine trophoblastic protein-1 (oTP-1)
- A protein
produced by the embryo, which may be a signal necessary
to maintain corpus luteum function and pregnancy.
- The process in which egg
is released from ovary.
- The number of eggs
shed by the ovary during an estrous cycle.
- The female reproductive cell
or egg that develops into a new individual after fertilization
with a ram sperm cell.
- Poisons found in plants
that causes kidney failure and a decline in blood calcium
- Peptide hormone that is
released from the pituitary and that stimulates uterine
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- Those who slaughter and process
Packers and Stockyard Act
- Congressional act
passed in 1921 to ensure fair and open competition in
the trading of livestock, poultry and meat.
- An area of extensive
coiling of the testicular artery and veins to maintain
a constant testicular temperature.
- Condition of inadequate
prepucial opening, allowing the penis to extend, but
after engagement it is unable to retract to its normal
- An organism that lives off
of a host.
- Portion of the mammary
gland that contains the secretory alveoli and the ducts
that transport the milk secretions.
- A complex process which
results in delivery of the fetus from the uterus. Also
known as "lambing."
- An electronic probe
device for measuring pasture mass.
- Ewes are lambed in
fenced pastures where they are checked by the shepherd
once or twice daily.
- The progress of a disease
from the exposure of an animal through the clinical
stages and recovery or death.
- The ability to produce
- Selection of individuals
based on the performance of their relatives.
- The skin of a sheep including
Per capita consumption
- The amount
of lamb consumed by one person in a year. Current figure
is 1.4 pounds.
Percent retail cuts
- The pounds of
retail cuts divided by the carcass weight.
- The general area
between the anus and scrotum or posterior udder attachment.
- Infection of the peritoneum,
which is the membrane surrounding the abdominal cavity.
- A sponge or sponge-like device
impregnated with hormones that is temporarily placed
in the ewe's vagina to release those hormones. Usually
used to control the estrous cycle.
- The stage of maturity
of growing plants.
- The expression of the genotype
that can be observed or measured.
- Effect of a hormone being
secreted by one individual that affects a different
- Condition in rams characterized
by a prepucial opening too small to allow extension
of the penis.
- A ratio of hours of light
to the hours of dark.
- A severe skin
reaction when the animal is exposed to sunlight.
- Highly contagious disease
that affects the eyes of sheep.
- Stainless steel pipe used
to transport the milk from the clusters to the bulk
tank during milking. It can be in a high or low position.
- An endocrine gland at the
base of the brain that responds to signals from the
hypothalamus for release of hormones.
- A sac-like tissue that contains
the fetus during its development and connects the fetus
to the dam.
- Infection of the placenta.
- Wool with little crimp.
- All of the different
plant species that may be growing within a given area.
- A type of respiratory disease
that attacks lungs.
- Disease caused by Chlamydia
that affects the joints, causing lambs to be reluctant
to rise or move.
- Type of electric fence that
is made of thin strands of wire running through polyethylene,
twine, or ribbon.
Position of break (POB)
the location of the weakest part of the staple.
- An increase
in one trait results in a predictable increase in a
- Inflammation of the prepuce.
- After birth.
- Period of time after parturition.
- The amount of time between
birth of lamb(s) and rebreeding.
- Parts per million; about 1 gram
- An indicator of the degree
of repeatability in a set of measurements.
- Preparing suckling
lambs for feeding prior to transport to a feedlot. May
include weaning, vaccinating, worming, starting lambs
on feed, and shearing.
- The act of killing and
eating livestock by a carnivorous animal.
- An animal that satisfies
some or all of its nutritional requirements by killing
and feeding on other animals.
- Measure of possible
future change in EPD value.
- Metabolic disease
of pregnant ewes generally caused by a diet deficient
in energy during late pregnancy.
Pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG)
- A hormone produced by the embryo in pregnant mares
that has gonadotropin-like effects.
- Before birth.
- Animals that are homozygous
for a specific trait and breed true.
- An individual that has
not reached puberty or sexual maturity.
- Drugs that can only be
purchased after authorization by a veterinarian.
- The interaction
of the broad forces of supply and demand.
- The process of buyers
and sellers arriving at a transaction price for a given
quantity and quality of product at a given time.
- The difference between
the farm price and the retail price.
- Particular type of
protein, which in its abnormal form, is associated with
spongiform encephalopathy diseases (large holes in brain).
- Grains that have
been steamed, flaked, ground, rolled, micronized, reconstituted,
or otherwise altered.
- The risk of livestock
dying or not achieving desired standards of biological
performance such as rate of gain or feed efficiency.
- A form of pedigree selection
and a method of estimating the breeding value of an
animal by measuring the performance phenotype of its
- Hormone secreted by
corpus luteum on the ovary following ovulation.
Progestins or Progestogens
compounds with the properties of progesterone.
used to measure fiber diameter and fiber diameter variability.
- Measure of reproductive
efficiency expressed in number of lambs born per ewe
- Frightening device
that produces loud explosions at timed intervals to
temporarily repel coyotes from sheep.
- Hormone which induces
regression of the corpus luteum.
- A series of compounds
that are released by most cells in the body. Two prostaglandins
(PGF2a and PGE2) are involved in reproductive functions.
- Animal or plant
species protected from killing, trapping, or collection
under the federal Endangered Species Act or other state
and local regulations.
- Nitrogen-based essential
nutrient, composed of chains of amino acids, that is
present in all living things.
- Feedstuffs or
mixture of feedstuffs that contain a high level of protein.
Fed to animals in addition to their base diet.
- Bacteria able
to develop at low temperature.
- The stage of maturation when
an animal first becomes capable of reproducing.
- Establishment that
provides a central assembly (supply) and pricing (demand)
point. Examples include public auctions and terminal
- Wool pulled from the
skin of a slaughtered sheep after the flesh side of
the skin has been painted with depilatory.
- Mating of rams and ewes
of a common genetic group or breed.
- In wool means freedom from
black or brown fibers, kemp, and hair.
- Those who process large
cuts of meat into portion-controlled cuts for foodservice
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- Discrete traits
controlled by a few alleles at one or a few loci and
influenced little or none by the environment.
- The diameter or fineness
Quality grade (QG)
- Grading system
designed to reflect palatability differences based on
conformation and quality in relation to maturity.
- The count number by
which wools, tops, noils, and yarns are known; this
being originally based on the count of yarn to which
the material will theoretically spin.
- Traits influenced
by many alleles at several loci that have a continuous
expression and are affected by the environment.
- Physical isolation of
diseased and exposed animals.
- Domestic wool of a
certain degree of fineness. The term originally indicated
wool from a sheep with one-quarter Merino blood.
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- A male sheep used for breeding.
- Meat-type breeds used primarily
as terminal sires on ewe or dual-purpose breeds for
market lamb production.
- Phenomenon in which the
presence of a ram initiates estrus in anestrus ewes.
- Central facility where rams
from many flocks are raised together for a short period
and compared under standardized conditions.
- The number of rams
that it takes to service a group of ewes.
- Wool shorn from sheep
raised under ranching conditions. In United States better
known as territory wool.
- Those areas where climate,
topography, and other features have resulted in the
land remaining largely in native plant species that
can only be utilized through grazing.
- Birds of prey.
- A method used to compare genetic
value of animals within a contemporary group. Computed
by dividing the animal's own performance by the average
performance of its contemporaries and multiplying that
result by 100.
- Mixture of feedstuffs fed
- In a heterozygous gene
pair, it is the allele that does not express itself.
In a homozygous gene pair, both genes can be recessive.
It is usually denoted by lower case letters.
- Condition (caused
by high concentrate feeding, short docking and continuous
coughing) in which the rectum protrudes from the anal
- The amount of moisture in
the wool fibers, expressed as a percentage of the clean
- Compound applied to sheep
that prevents coyotes from killing them. Deterrents
include smell, taste, and sound.
- Rate at which ewes
are replaced in a flock.
- As defined in the
Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939, "the resulting fiber
when wool has been woven or felted into a wool product
which, without ever having been utilized in any way
by the consumer, subsequently has been made into a fibrous
- Diseases of
the male or female reproductive tract.
- Percent lamb
crop raised and marketed.
- A wool clip that
for years has been uniform in diameter, had good staple
length, been free of propylene twine, and had a low
Residual Forage Mass
- The amount of
forage remaining in the pasture after harvest. Resistance
to compression - The force required to compress a standard
mass of wool into a fixed volume.
- Diseases of the
- Meats prepared
from muscles or parts of muscles which are held together
by muscle protein.
- Those cuts of meat that
are sold to consumers.
- Those who sell directly
to consumers. Usually through supermarkets.
- Condition in which
placenta is not expelled after birth.
- Section of the ruminant
gastrointestinal tract consisting of the reticulum and
the rumen that is the primary site for microbial fermentation
- Second stomach of a ruminant
containing microbial population that is capable of breaking
down forages and roughages. Return on investment - A
financial measure of dollars received from dollars invested.
- As defined in the Wool
Products Labeling Act of 1939, "the resulting fiber
when wool or reprocessed wool has been spun, woven,
knitted, or felted into a wool product which, after
having been used in any way by the ultimate consumer,
subsequently has been made into a fibrous state."
- Disease characterized by
soft and deformed bones.
- Male sheep in which one
or both testes are retained in the abdomen. A cryptorchid.
- A condition characterized
by failure of the ewe's cervix to dilate at parturition.
Rising Plate Meter
- Mechanical device
for measuring pasture mass. Consists of a calibrated
stick and a moveable disk or plate that compresses the
forage beneath it.
- System that places
rams with breeding flock for set, predetermined periods
system designed to maintain high levels of heterosis
while also allowing conventional ewe production within
flock. Based on alternating use of rams of two, three,
or more breeds within the flock.
system that combines advantages of terminal and rotational
crosses by using rotational crossing in a nucleus flock
to produce replacement ewes while surplus ewes are mated
to terminal sires to produce market lambs.
- Fibrous feedstuffs such
as straw, cottonseed hulls, and other plant by-products.
- The relatively fine, fibrous,
twisted strands used in the later or final processes
of preparation for spinning.
- Large first compartment of
a ruminant's stomach containing microbial population
that is capable of breaking down forages and roughages.
- Pregastric fermentation
chamber that hosts a large microbial population.
- Group of animals that chew
their cud and characteristically have a four-compartment
- Process of regurgitating
food bolus to be rechewed and resalivated.
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- A relatively small
area where animals are confined long enough to consume
forage below the normal residual mass. Generally used
to protect other paddocks on the farm.
- Serious disease of
feeder lambs characterized by gastroenteritis, diarrhea,
septicemia and death.
- Coccidia that develops
in the gut of dogs and cats and is transmitted to sheep
Satellite video auctions
conducted over the phone while showing videos of sheep
and lambs being sold via satellite.
- Protective layer of overlapping,
flattened cells that surround wool fiber.
- Wool from which the
bulk of impurities have been removed by an aqueous or
solvent washing process.
- The removal of grease, soil,
and suint from wool by washing with water, soap, and
- Slow, progressive disease
of the central nervous system.
- The distance
around the ram's testes, measured at the largest point.
Seasonal price index
- Defines the
average price level for an agricultural commodity in
relation to an annual average price.
- The pattern of prices
which change during a calendar or marketing year.
- Careless shearing sometimes
results in cutting wool which has already been shorn
Secondary/Primary ratio (S/P ratio)
- The ratio of secondary to primary wool follicles.
Seedstock flock - A flock whose primary income is obtained
from the sale of breeding stock to purebred or commercial
- A term applied to wools containing
grass seeds of various descriptions that are difficult
- Practice of determining
which individuals will be allowed to mate to produce
the next generation.
- Specific traits
measured and used as a basis for choosing replacement
ewes and rams.
- Refers to
how much better or worse the selected individuals are
compared to the entire group of individuals eligible
- Long-term direction of a
flock that should provide a clear picture of the desired
direction of genetic change in the flock based on the
economic realities of the production system.
- Selection method
that ranks individual animals for economic merit based
upon two or more traits.
- The smaller the
proportion of the lamb crop that needs to be saved for
replacements, the greater the selection intensity and
therefore the larger the selection differential.
- Animals that demonstrate
a dietary strategy of greater preferences or more precise
choices when consuming grasses, forbs, or shrubs than
- Any plant that
accumulates high levels of selenium in its tissues.
Can cause selenium toxicity if consumed by sheep.
- Method of feeding animals
from hoppers, automated auger systems or open troughs
allowing lambs free access to feed at all times.
- Fluid containing sperm that
is secreted by male reproductive organ.
- Tissue located
in testis of ram that produces sperm.
- Yarn spun from
sliver, produced by carding and gilling, in which the
fibers are substantially parallel.
- Presence and growth of
disease-causing bacteria in the blood stream.
- Testing serum for the presence
of specific antibodies.
- A negative result on
a serological (blood) test.
- A positive result on
a serological (blood) test.
Serotypes or Serovar
- Refers to the
strain of virus or bacteria as detected by antigen differences
that stimulate the immune reponse.
- A cell of the testis
that supports sperm cell production and produces androgen
binding protein (ABP) and inhibin.
- The clear portion of the blood
that is visible after a clot forms.
- The number of ewes
that a ram can successfully mate.
- Grazing method in which
animals remain on a pasture for an extended period of
time. Also called "Continuous Grazing."
- The removing of the wool
- Wooled lambskins.
Sheep "deck" chair
- Restraining device
that mechanically holds the sheep sitting on its rump.
- The term given to vegetable
matter other than burrs found in wool.
- Device used to support
rifle to improve accuracy.
- Animal whose estrus
and ovulation occurs as the days become shorter.
grazing animals into large herds that are rotated through
a series of pastures.
- Large commercially made devices
that heavily soak 20-40 head of sheep for 30-60 seconds
with high volume nozzles spraying down from above and
up from below.
- The loss of body weight associated with transporting animals or carcasses during marketing.
- The loss due to removal of grease, suint, and foreign matter when grease wool is scoured and carbonized.
- Bushy or woody plant with several permanent stems instead of a single trunk.
- Dogs that depend upon their ability to see the coyote to run it down and kill it.
- Green forage preserved in silo or air-tight bag.
- An ovulation that is not associated with a behavioral estrus.
- Fleece defect in which fiber is devoid of crimp. With age the fleece will tend to become cotted or matted and will shed.
- To remove by burning against a hot plate or in a flame, unwanted surface hairs or filaments produced in the manufacturing process.
- Management practice that allows only one ram at a time in with group of ewes.
- Selecting for only one trait at a time.
- The father.
- Breed noted for high levels of performance for growth rate, feed efficiency, or carcass merit.
- Wool removed from the skins of slaughtered sheep.
- The practice of removing from fleeces the stained or inferior wool such as grows on the belly and legs of the sheep.
- A pricing method for slaughter lambs in which a discount is applied to each pound over a set weight.
- Grafting method in which the ewe's fluids and membranes are rubbed on the lamb just before grafting.
- Lime-steeped wools.
- A rope-like strand of fiber produced by carding.
- Technique of setting a steel-cable loop in an animal's movement path to capture it by the neck, body, or leg.
- White blood cells (and others) found in milk and whose number is a good indicator of udder health.
- Highly contagious (also to man), viral infection that causes scabs around mouth, nostrils, eyes and may affect udders of lactating ewes.
- A small, hinged gate at the end of a sorting chute that allows sheep to be sorted into two or three directions.
- The classification and division of the wool fibers in a fleece into various groups or sorts, according to fineness, length, soundness, elasticity, spinning, and other properties.
- Narrow area with tapering sides that allows animals to file through sorting gates after treatment.
- Wool of any quality which has a strong staple.
- The male reproductive cell. Combines with the ovum during fertilization for development of a new individual.
- Genetic condition in which lambs have severe bone deformities throughout their entire skeleton.
- Term which denotes the degree of fineness of the wool fiber. The "count" number originally indicated the number of hanks of yarn of 560 yards which could be spun from a pound of top.
- The vertical portion of bone in loin used to determine body condition score.
- Highly resistant reproductive structures that can survive boiling temperatures, many disinfectants, and excessive drying.
- Stage in sheep's life when teeth begin to spread and loosen.
- Wool which has become discolored through the effects of urine, feces, or any other coloring agent.
- Grafting method in which ewe is placed in set of stocks where she can eat and drink but not turn to see the lambs and must allow lambs to nurse.
- Average deviation of each individual in the population from the population average.
Standardized Performance Analysis (SPA)
- Guidelines, tools, and benchmark data sets to help producers find solutions to profitability problems.
- Refers to the length of the fiber, but in a more restricted sense it is used for a lock of wool in the fleece.
- The length of a staple from tip to base.
- The force or "pull" required to break a staple of given thickness. Staple strength is expressed in newtons/kilotex.
- Accelerated lambing system in which ewes can lamb five times in three years.
- Major cause of lamb deaths due to lack of milk ingested.
- A class of hormones derived from cholesterol.
- A fetus which is fully mature but dead at birth.
- Amount of biomass per unit area at a specific instant of time.
- Grafting method in which a stocking is placed over ewe's lamb for two to three days, removed and placed on lamb to be grafted.
- The number of animals in a grazing unit over a period of time.
- Agreements between two or more companies which normally buy from and sell to each other for the mutual gain of both businesses.
- Any physical or psychological event that has a detrimental biological effect on an animal. Common examples are extreme temperature changes and fear.
- Intensified system of rotational grazing in which pasture area is grazed in strips.
- Massaging of the udder at the end of milking to completely empty the udder.
- Connective and adipose tissues, as well as vascular and lymphatic systems used in the development of the mammary gland.
- To be free of structural defects that might affect an animal's ability to feed and reproduce.
- Signs of disease that are not apparent by observation of the animal.
Subcutaneous injection (SQ)
- Injection given just beneath the skin.
- Genetic condition in which animals do not function normally but can still survive.
- Excretions from sweat glands deposited in the wool.
- A hormonal procedure to increase the number of ovulations from an ovary.
- The future production change based on current prices and profits.
- Fleece color pattern in which there are two shades of color on each fiber.
- Method of removing wool from the skins of slaughtered sheep.
- A six- to nine-foot gate that can be continuously swung in one direction without a center post. It slides through itself within its own frame.
Synchronization of estrus
- Management practice used to cause ewes to cycle at the same time.
- The separation of the whey from the curd.
- Man-made or manufactured fiber.
- Mating ewes and rams of specific breeds or crosses to produce offspring of a specified type.
- Disease where more than one portion of the body is affected - often the whole body or one or more systems.
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- Shorn fleece is placed flesh side down on a slatted table at which time all remaining skirts are removed.
- Practice of shearing wool off udder and dock region.
- Trade term for dung locks, floor sweepings, or stained pieces of wool.
- Multiple-trait selection that focuses on one trait at a time.
- Long, ribbon-like segmented flatworms that can inhabit the gastro-intestinal tract of sheep.
- The allowance made to buyers for gross weights, covering the weight of the burlap, and bands used in packing the wool.
- Ewe (may or may not be in heat) that is used to stimulate rams to ejaculate for semen collection.
- Management practice that uses surgically sterilized rams to stimulate some ewes to begin cycling.
- Auction conducted over a telephone conference call.
- Wool having weak places in the fibers and consequently used only for carding even if they are of combing length.
- The overall strength of fiber is low and the staple breaks over a wider area than a "break."
- Describes any substance that can cause birth deformities.
- System designed to make maximum use of both heterosis and complementarity by crossing two, three, or four breeds.
- Producers consign animals to a commission firm, which in turn, sells the livestock for the producer.
- Ram whose lambs all go to market as slaughter lambs.
- Those that come from the territory comprising the inter-mountain states.
- Male reproductive organs that produce and store semen.
- The primary steroid produced by the male reproductive tract necessary for sperm cell production.
- Condition of mineral imbalance marked by muscle spasms.
- The direct decimal system based on metric units used to describe the linear density of fibers, filaments, slivers, and yarns.
- Compound (enzyme) that destroys thiamine or vitamin B1. Found in certain species of poisonous plants.
- Term designating a given degree of fineness in domestic wool between low half-blood and high quarterblood.
- Wingless, bloodsucking insects that infest during the summer.
- Restraining device that squeezes the sheep from the side by the ribs and chest. The sheep is then turned upside down side over side.
- Wool in which the tip portions of the fibers have been so damaged by natural weathering as to have markedly different dyeing properties than the root portions.
- A continuous, untwisted strand of combed wool in which the fibers lie parallel, with short fibers having been combed out as noil.
- The dyeing of wool, such as slubbing or top, in package form.
- A dealer in tops who buys wool, sorts it if necessary, and makes it into tops.
- Description of a place, usually referring to the slope of the land.
- Male sheep in which one or both testes are retained in the abdomen. A cryptorchid.
Total digestible nutrients (TDN)
- Standard system for expressing the energy value of feeds.
Total ewe productivity
- Overall reproductive measure expressed as pounds of lamb weaned per ewe exposed to rams.
Total forage mass
- Total amount of forage above ground.
- General symptoms due to the absorption of bacterial toxins from a local site of infection.
- Poison substance used to kill predators.
- A poison produced by a plant or animal as distinguished from simple chemical poisons such as lead, arsenic, or cyanide.
- A chemically modified form of a toxin that is used in a vaccine to stimulate an immune response.
- Type of infectious abortion caused by small organism which infects the intestinal tract of young cats.
Trace minerals (TM)
- Minerals that are required in very small amounts.
- Dogs that follow the scent left by a predator and run it to tree or bay it on the ground.
- Characteristic of animal.
Transcervical artificial insemination
- Any one of several techniques where a specially designed insemination pipette is carefully threaded through the cervix of the ewe in order to deposit semen in the uterus.
- The short horizontal portion of bone in loin used to determine body condition score.
- Method of catching predators alive.
- Injury to lambs (usually newborns) including broken ribs, broken backs, ruptured livers and spleens, and suffocation.
- Long, narrow area that restricts movement so that treatment can be applied.
- Group of three primary follicles with varying number of secondary follicles.
- Restraining device that squeezes the sheep from the front and rear until all feet leave the ground. The sheep is then pivoted upside down end over end.
- Wrapping two or more yarns together to form a multi-ply yarn.
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- Score given to the morphology of the udder according to its size, depth, and teat location.
- Method of pregnancy evaluation that uses sound waves to detect fetuses.
- High-frequency sound waves used to evaluate pregnancy and body composition.
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
- Division of the federal government that enforces regulations related to agriculture.
- A small non-protein nitrogen compound that can be fed to sheep to produce tissue protein. Also is excreted by sheep to eliminate ammonia wastes.
- A portion of the urinary tract carrying urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.
- See urolithiasis.
- Metabolic disease of male lambs characterized by the formation of stones within the urinary tract. It is caused primarily by an imbalance of dietary calcium and phosphorus.
- Protrusion of the uterus following lambing.
- Region of the female reproductive tract that contains the fetus during gestation.
- The amount or level of annual use of plant growth by grazing animals.
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- Injection, given to healthy animals, used to stimulate prolonged immunity to specific diseases.
- A preparation of whole organisms, or parts of organisms, used to stimulate a protective immune response in an animal.
- Protrusion of the vagina in ewes in late pregnancy.
- The additional worth of products which comes from processing.
- The process of prices matching the true economic value of products.
- Expresses the distribution of values about the mean.
- A statistical term used to quantify genetic and phenotypic differences among animals in performance.
- Rams that have had a section of the reproductive tract (a portion of the vas deferens) removed, making them incapable of impregnating ewes.
Vegetable matter (VM)
- Burrs, seeds, straw, chaff, and small pieces of stick and bark.
Vegetable matter base (VMB)
- Percentage of burrs, seeds, straw, chaff, and small pieces of stick and bark in a greasy core sample.
- Marketing channel from producer to consumer that involves sheep raising, lamb feeding, slaughter and processing, and lamb distribution.
- Wool shorn from live sheep or pulled from sheep skins and not previously manufactured.
- The degree of ability of an organism to establish infection and produce disease.
- Internal organs of an animal.
- Small, organic compounds, necessary for proper metabolism, that are found in feed in minute amounts. Deficiencies result in distinct diseases or syndromes.
Volatile fatty acids (VFAs)
- End products of microbial digestion.
- The external genitalia of the female reproductive tract.
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Warm weather grasses
- Grasses that form a 4-carbon carbohydrate as the first product of photosynthesis. Since these species mature in late summer or fall, they can be grazed as they grow during the summer.
- The by-product of the various machines used in manufacturing textile materials.
- Wool which is short and weak in fiber.
- Interlacing of two sets of yarn to form fabric.
- A pricing method for slaughter lambs in which packers quote a price for a specified weight and only pay up to this weight.
- Grafting method in which the lamb to be grafted as well as the ewe's own lamb is immersed in a saturated salt solution.
- A castrated male sheep.
- The watery part of the milk that is separated from the curd.
White muscle disease
- Disease caused by deficiency of selenium, Vitamin E or both that causes degeneration of the skeletal and cardiac muscles of lambs.
- Bird droppings.
- A group of companies which purchase from packers and resell products to retailers and the food service industry.
- The fibrous covering of the sheep.
Wool base (WB)
- The oven-dry weight of wool fiber that is free from all impurities. Expressed as a percentage of the weight of the greasy core sample.
- Foreign substance adhered to fleece.
Wool Incentive Program
- A government program under the "Wool Act" which paid sheep producers to raise sheep.
- Method of cooperatively marketing wool. Pools accumulate members' wool to sell and ship in quantity.
Wool Products Labeling Act
- Legislation requiring every wool product (except upholstery fabrics and floor coverings) bear a label listing the type and percentage of fibers as well as the name or registered number of the manufacturer.
- Symbol that certifies that the product contains at least 60 percent wool and meets The Wool Bureau's standards for performance and workmanship.
- Manufacturing process that produces a more bulky, low-twist yarn with low linear density. The resulting fibers are criss-crossed and do not lie in any general order.
- Internationally recognized symbol that can only be used on products containing 100-percent wool.
- Dog that works with shepherd to move and gather sheep.
- Yarn spun from top. The resulting fibers are parallel and smooth compared to woolen yarns.
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- A product of substantial length and relatively small cross section of fibers and with or without twist.
- A one-year-old sheep.
- Discoloration caused by continued wetting of the skin of sheep and occurs as horizontal bands on the staple.
- The amount of clean wool obtained from a definite quantity of grease wool.
Yield grade (YG)
- Grading system designed to reflect differences in proportion of trimmed meat based on external fat thickness.
- A combination of suint and grease
deposited on the wool fibers from the sweat and sebaceous
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- Growth-promoting implant
approved for feeder lambs.
- A disease which
is transmitted between animals and people (pl. zoonoses).