Coyote Predacide and Gastrointestinal Nematodes Resistance Articles Posted
May 31, 2013

Two new articles have been posted to the American Sheep Industry Association's Sheep and Goat Research Journal. The results for each study are available by clicking on the Research Journal tab at www.sheepusa.org. 
 
Effectiveness of Theobromine and Caffeine Mixtures in Coyote Lure Operative Devices as a Predacide: A Simulated Field Study written by E.M. Gese, P.A. Darrow, J.A. Shivik, B.A. Kimball, J.D. Eisemann and J.K. Young -- Predators are capable of causing damage to domestic livestock throughout North America. Lethal responses for managing livestock depredations may include the use of sodium cyanide in M-44 devices. Currently, several states have banned the use of M-44s and several other states are forecast to ban these devices. Therefore, additional tools are being sought to expand the repertoire of options available for managing coyote depredations on domestic livestock. Evaluation of the use of a theobromine-caffeine mixture delivered within a Coyote Lure Operative Device (CLOD) as an additional predacide for coyotes. Results from six trials involving 38 captive coyotes were ambiguous. Issues related to the attractiveness of the CLOD, palatability of the compound and absorption of the theobromine-caffeine mixture produced mortality levels below the desired 90-percent mortality rate deemed adequate for laboratory efficacy study to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency registration and operational use. While many coyotes died from consumption of the theobromine-caffeine mixture, several coyotes recovered with symptoms of poisoning disappearing within 12 hours in those animals that survived exposure to the toxicant. Several issues relating to palatability of the mixture and compound delivery, as well as coyote behavior, sensory abilities and physiology, indicated the use of a theobromine-caffeine mixture in a CLOD may not be an effective method for managing coyote depredations on domestic livestock. 
 
Efficacy Of Garlic Juice, Copper Oxide Wire Particles and Anthelmintics To Control Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Goats written by A.D. Courter, T.K. Hutchens, K. Andries, J.E. Miller, J.E. Tower and M.K. Neary -- This study examined the efficacy of garlic juice (99.5-percent pure) (G), copper oxide wire particles (COWP), levamisole, moxidectin, a combination treatment of COWP and G (CG) and no treatment for gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) control in lactating Boer-Kiko cross does. These data support determining which GIN species are present in a goat herd at various times of the year and applying an internal-parasite-management protocol accordingly.